Modern art in America gained a cadre of practitioners before and during the Second World War with the immigration of European artists. Some of these emigres taught, either at universities or their own schools, and their principles and techniques were absorbed by a generation of native artists. In the late 1940s avant-garde artists living in New York began making paintings that reflected their personal views on contemporary philosophy and psychology. Often referred to as the New York School, these abstract expressionists had a profound impact on art in the U.S. and Europe. Later, in the 1950s and 1960s, artists created work that rejected the bravura gestures of the previous generations in favor of art that reflected an aesthetic based on contemporary values.